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Ten points for changes for citizens and businesses


#After a four-and-a-half-year divorce process marked by several twists and turns and many uncertainties, the #United #Kingdom leaves the #European #Union (EU) on #January 1.

#Brexit will take full effect after an 11-month transition period during which the UK continued to apply EU rules without sitting on EU institutional bodies. #This transition period also allowed #Brussels and #London to finalize the terms of their future relationship.

The post-Brexit agreement concluded on #December 24 and signed on #Wednesday by the EU and the #United #Kingdom comes into provisional application this #Friday pending ratification by the #European #Parliament in early 2021. #This text allows the two parties in particular to continue exchanges trade without taxes or quotas, while inducing several changes.

#Here are the big changes for citizens and businesses after #Brexit goes into effect:

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– #Free movement between the UK and the EU ends on #January 1. #London grants the 4.2 million #Europeans living in the #United #Kingdom the possibility of staying six months in a row a year in the #United #Kingdom, while for a longer stay, it will be necessary to apply for a visa. #For their part, EU nationals wishing to settle and work in the UK will need to apply for a work visa (except #Irish). #European tourists will still be able to travel across the #Channel with a simple identity card until #October 1, but after this date a passport will be required. #And visits to #Great #Britain will no longer be unlimited: for a stay of more than 90 days, obtaining a visa will be necessary. #For the #British, who are not citizens of the #Union, they will no longer be able to reside without a visa for more than three months out of a period of six consecutive months in an EU member country.

– #Regarding studies in the #United #Kingdom, to enroll in #British universities, #Europeans will now have to pay the same tuition fees as other foreign students, whereas they had previously paid the UK rate . They will no longer be able to benefit from UK student loans and will have to pay for a study visa if they stay for more than six months.

– The #United #Kingdom, which welcomed more than 31,000 #Erasmus students to its universities in 2018, has also decided to leave this student mobility program and develop, for the years to come, its own university exchange program .

– #On the other hand, researchers will continue to maintain privileged channels of cooperation. The #United #Kingdom will continue to participate in the “Horizon #Europe” research program, but also in the nuclear research and training program. #It will also continue to take part in the “Copernicus” satellite observation program.

– The absence of tariffs and quotas for “all goods which meet the appropriate rules of origin” under the post-Brexit agreement does not mean that there will be no border controls. The EU and the UK will now be two separate regulatory spaces. #Each party must therefore ensure that the exports of the other party comply with its standards, norms and regulations. #Traders will need to complete export and import declarations. The EU and UK will recognize the other party’s “Authorized #Economic #Operators”, who will undergo less stringent checks. The two parties also agreed to a common definition of international standards, to ensure that they use the same references.

– The EU and UK will also have their own sanitary and phytosanitary rules. #Consequently, agro-food products imported from the #United #Kingdom will be systematically checked.

– #British service companies will lose their automatic access to the #European market – in particular, this is the end of the “financial passport” for the #City of #London. #British banks must wait for the #European #Commission to decide whether or not to issue them with equivalence decisions in order to be able to operate on #European soil without being established there.

– #British airlines will no longer participate in the #European aviation market, but the post-Brexit agreement provides for the maintenance of their freedom to make direct connections between the #Union and the #United #Kingdom. The use of #British or #European soil as a stopover (other than technical) is however no longer guaranteed, and depends on the conclusion of bilateral agreements between the #Member #States and the #United #Kingdom. #Non-discrimination clauses are included in the agreement to guarantee companies access to locations and ground handling.

– #As regards road hauliers, the agreement allows unlimited access for “point to point” deliveries and gives them limited rights to cabotage. #While some 5 million heavy goods vehicles cross the #Channel each year, the sector apprehends the effect of the reintroduction of customs controls on the flow of traffic.

– #Over the next five years, #European fishermen will gradually return a quarter of the quotas they use in the #British exclusive economic zone. Then, the water division will be the subject of an annual renegotiation.

#With MAP





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##Ten #points #citizens #businesses

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